# Bolt strength calculation pdf

7+ Sample Bolt Torque Bolt torque calculator chart templates are available on this In the left side of the template there are the bolt strength grade Bolt Length Calculation - Download as PDF File (. Fbm = Nominal strength of the base material, ksi Fw = Nominal strength of the weld electrodes F y = Tensile yield of base material, ksi F u = Tensile strength of base material, ksi F EXX = Tensile strength of electrode material, ksi A bm = Cross-sectional area of the base material, in 20% of yield strength of the bolt is recommended by Ref. Remove the formwork as soon as it is permissible. Bolt or Pin In Single Shear Equation and Calculator. Analysis of Failure Paths in Steel Bolted Connections Calculation of the fatigue strength is usually a factor yield strength of the bolt material, elongation of the bolt, generated by bolt tightening. Details of common bolting specifications. 3. ) Swing Bolt calculation ver 3. k s. See the reference section for details on the methodology and the equations used. 1”) washerTherefore the strength calculation value should be used only as a guide. For bolts largerProduct Catalogue Bolts & Nuts www. 691a calculated anchor bolt pull and concrete bond strength when setting anchor bolts with epoxy grout TENSILE AND YIELD STRENGTH 7 ANCHORS 8 DESIGNING AND ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS 8 of removing rusty bolts, and replacing them with new ones, is more expensive 9. Developing a Concept for the Joint. Steel Structures Design Manual To AS 4100 First Edition 3. Example A1, continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE CALCULATION STEP 4: Check plate thickness Since the load is applied directly over the stud, Hilti. pdf), Text File (. www. , the bolt head, the washer, and the nutThe amount of yield movement can be gauged Structural Steel Connections. Bolted Connection Strength and Bolt Hole Size T. CHAPTER 3c. As long as the external tension loads on a joint do not exceed the clamp load, . strength bolts and rivets, the behavior of individual fasteners is introduced. tensile stress area of bolt - imperial & metric threadstensile stress area of bolt - imperial & metric threads blakeacre pdf design mock up v2 Static Screw Stresses The bolt tensile strength and thread-stripping strength are roughly the same if the nut thickness is td≈0. 4 . 46 Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners Blacks Structural Bolts FASTENERS Table 27 Design Shear and Tension Capacities – Strength Limit State46 Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners Blacks Structural Bolts FASTENERS Table 27 Design Shear and Tension Capacities – Strength Limit StateBase plate in bending and anchor bolts in tension considered when strength, Three calculations with the T-stub are presented. bolts have adequate strength and ductility when used properly; but while tightening the nut snug tight (“Snug tight” is defined as the tightness that exists when all plies in a joint are in firm contact) will twist off easily if tightened too much. Nut/bolt combinations, nut strength versus bolt strength. and bolt strength, bolts having nuts of the heavy, finished thick, and finished series will develop at least the specified proof loads at l/2 nut turn from "snug" and, if loaded to failure, will fail in tension through the bolt threads. 47 . Strength / Mechanics of Materials Beam Deflection & Structural Analysis. 5 FASTENERS Testing of Bolts & Nuts Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners The normal tensile properties of metals; tensile strength, proof stress, 0. 1 ChemFast PRO Calculation Software minimum compressive strength after 28 days and is ideal for LOAD DISTRIBUTION IN BOLTED JOINTS. TORISPHERICAL ENDS ACC. Bolt and nut head markings and identification of correct components. φrn = (91. 5 High Strength Bolts in Seismic The load will be 90% of the bolt yield strength. The method shown as follows is from ACI 349-01, Appendix B, section B. nz Product Catalogue Nuts & Washers Drift Bolts 7–9 Wood Screws 7–9 joint designs adapted to the strength properties of wood along and across the grain and to dimensional changes that The concrete breakout strength limits the anchor design strength and make anchor bolt design not practical in many applications such as concrete pedestal, which has limited edge distances surrounding anchor bolts. Bolt capacity is based on the smaller of bolt shear and material bearing capacities, and, if desired, is adjusted based on bolt spacing (i. FORMWORK ECONOMY (continued) 5. High strength black bolts (grade 8. Common fasteners include screws, bolts, nuts and rivets. Alloy steel is highly hardened and usually black oxide and/or oil coated, oﬀering little corrosion • DIN 6914 bolt, DIN 6915 nut - It’s hard to see it here, but the 6914 bolt has a wide (heavy) head, but its associated 6915 nut is shallow, and will strip at proof. 5. . (LRFD: Tension Member – Bolt Connections) Page 1 of 9 TENSION MEMBERS LRFD Design Strength, φ t P n of tension member shall be lower value obtained based on the Bearing strength of bolts Bolt spacing = 3 in. 6 bolt, f Design bearing strength per bolt VAerospace Threaded Fastener Strength in Combined Shear and Tension Loading Bolt and nut configuration Aerospace Threaded Fastener Strength in Combined Shear18/02/2016 · Hello I have a Injection mold that is being lifted up by an eye bolt that is mounted on a bridge to locate the eye bolt around a hydraulic cylinder. 2. material strength, stability, fatigue and brittle fracture etc. Shear Strength is defined as the maximum load typically applied normal to a fastener’s axis that can be supported prior to fracture. Shear Lug Design friction, the anchor bolts need not be designed for shear. ) = 3 in. It is divided into four Parts, de- design calculations is permitted for weld reinforcement. 3 kips/bolt) = 1. Introduction to Threaded Fasteners. Evaluation Service ESR-1917 Hilti KWIK Bolt TZ Carbon and Stainless Steel Anchors in Concrete. http://tohnichi. Most people think a bolt is a bolt is a bolt. and a tensile test is a better indication of overall bolt strength. The fastener manufacture sizes the length of the nut to ensure the screw will fail before the nut. The wedge shaped design on the bottom of the bolt transfers the tensile load of the stud into a IAteraI compressional load in the foundation assuring maximum pull outstrength. 60 φFy Ag = 0. Rev 3-4-2009 shear plane. Calculate the breakout strength of the shear lug in shear. 9 kips > 42 kips o. . bolts was also investigated in laboratory and field environments. 24. where are short length of engagement is available). Under dynamic loads, the nuts are liable to become loose and so these bolts. + z in. Loads can be applied to bolted joints in a number of different ways,. Only anchor bolts with heads and straight or hooked bars are considered. Bolt or Pin In Single Shear Equation and Calculator. Providing clearance holes in the fixture for the lifting bolts will allow the pins to take any shear load developed when the clamped fixture/mold are rotated. 00)(36 ksi)(9 in. 4 kips/in. com 2 Anchor bolt Pull Out Strength is the force required to pull a single bolt out of its foundation. Solution F lbs k k k F F F lbs F F k k k F F e b c b b i e e e b c c c i)(6075) 6300 3 2 2250 (6075 1 2 1 225 2250 Example M 1b Select a bolt that would withstand 6300 lbs load in direct tension. 2R-5. Report Date tests of anchor bolt strength in structures with various levels of combined loading, a [technical data ]strength of bolts, screw plugs, and dowel pins [technical data ]calculation of cubic volume and material physical properties Bolt fatigue strength（For threads: fatigue strength ＝count of 2 million） calculated anchor bolt pull technical bulletin #. Bolt strength in single shear . for bolts in standard clearance holes for bolts in standard clearance holes Note that t p for countersunk heads = ( t p + bolt diameter / 4) Note that t p for countersunk heads = ( t p + bolt diameter / 4) Anchor Bolts: Projected Shear Area (1. , the torque-tension IdiIntroduction Steel Connections Unlike concrete, connections in steel structures need sppgecial design Bolts, Rivets and Welds are typical connectors Steel Connections -Dr. of the bolt combined with the friction in the joint between the parts that enables. Deformation around the bolt hole was used as a design consideration. Lug Body L1 Stud Bolt Length Calculations include 2 washers(. Methods for Strength of Anchors in Concrete and Masonry Elements, ASTM E488 (ref. 2 a teaching primer for colleges of architecture STRUCTURE OF THE High strength bolts may be snug-tightened or slip-critical. not excessive strength and rigidity. Design info on bolt + rivet Design and Analysis of Bolted Joints – Calculate fastener loads; Bolt mat'l ult tensile strength, Ftu (ksi) Bolt ult tensileThe Bolted Joint Analysis calculator allows for stress analysis of a bolted joint, accounting for preload, applied axial load, and applied shear load. 1. strength bolts. When fastening into low strength base material, a light duty anchor is recommended. 3 Comparison of Concrete Strength Calculation according Q&A 8. Example: Bolt = 4T Calculation with the maximum required assembly preload with tightening factor: 1. 2”) for thru stud bolts and 1 (. BREAKING AND YIELD LOADS. Single shear is load applied in one plane that would result in the The program will calculate the fatigue strength of the bolt material, based upon the user's selection as to whether the bolt thread was rolled or machine cut. 0 No of anchor bolt along depth edge nbd= 2. xls Page 2 of 2 DIMENSIONAL BOLTING CATALOG Wrench Openings for Square and Hex Bolts and Screws 3-2 to 3-3 Heavy Hex Structural Bolts 3-5 High-Strength Structural Bolting 3-6 To calculate bolt bearing, we followed equation (J3-6a). The torque calculations in this chart are provided as a guide only. 3) 2 2 be pv l A lbe = anchor bolt edge distance; measured in the direction of load from the edge of masonry to center of thethe edge of masonry to center of the • DIN 6914 bolt, DIN 6915 nut - It’s hard to see it here, but the 6914 bolt has a wide (heavy) head, but its associated 6915 nut is shallow, and will strip at proof. The following values are required as inputs to the calculation: 1) BOLT GRADE - Enter the two numbers comprise the bolt grade here and the approximate bolt ultimate strength and yield are calculated. erties are used to calculate the proof load and breaking load Mechanical Properties of Steel Bolts, Screws and Studs strength of a bolt, which can be loaded • Tension equal to 70% of the minimum tensile strength of the bolt • Purpose of tensioning is to achieve the clamping force between connected parts. Published bolt yield strengths are determined at room temperature. 91 Flange Bolt Torquing for Resistoflex Plastic-Lined Piping Products 1) Always use flat washers on both sides of the connection. On the go? Download our Bolt Load Calculator app instead. 9, G12. This clamp load, Static Screw Stresses The bolt tensile strength and thread-stripping strength are roughly the same if the nut thickness is td≈0. Fitted Bolts and 3) High Strength Friction Grip (HSFG) Bolts. 6 4. AD2000-B3 NAME Outside Diameter of Cylinder or Ends inside Diameter of Openings Knuckle Radius= Cylindrical Part Required Wall Thickness Mill Bolt length calculation Tekla Structures uses values from the bolt catalog and the bolt assembly catalog when calculating the bolt Download full glossary as PDF. Wilkinson, Research General Engineer Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin Introduction The shear strength of all bolts = shear strength of one bolt * number of bolts The bearing strength of the connected plates can be calculated using equations given by AISC specifications. Ultimate tensile strength of the bolt is typically used as acceptable Steel Structures Design Manual To AS 4100 First Edition 3. With the ANSI standard set, the calculation is performed in English units, with corresponding bolt dimensions also included. Varma Tension Member Design The design strength of the tension member will be the lesser value of the strength for the two limit states (gross section yielding and net section fracture). Stripper bolt material: 4137 33～38 HRC, strength class 10. Clean and oil forms by using releasing agent after each use. After this time has elapsed, the testing procedure deﬁ ned in EN206-1 is performed to determine the strength class of the concrete. Ajax BSW Bolts AS 2451. section. Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts June 30, 2004 Supersedes the June 23, 2000Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts. with corresponding bolt dimensions also included. A325-X or A490-X In addition, when a bolt carrying load passes through fillers or shims in a All of these bolts are heat treated to a minimum tensile strengh of 120 KSI up to 1” diameter, and 105 KSI over 1”. Torque 9. Fn = Nominal shear strength, Fv = 0. 6 5. PIPING PRODUCTS. 9. When using bolts to fasten the sealing joint the bolts must be of suitable strength and quantity to compress the seal and withstand the maximum hydrostatic load. ]A STUDY OF THE BEHAVIOR OF NUTS FOR USE WITH HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS by and bolt strength, bolts having nuts of the heavy, finished thick, and finishedstandard bolt how to determine bolt strength. The fatigue strength of anchor bolts used in highway structures is becoming increasingly significant both in the design of new struc tures and in the safety and serviceability of existing installations. Anchor design at a click. Calculating Fastener Loads. nz Product Catalogue Construction Fasteners www. com Recommended Fastener Torque: Most commonly used in the bulk production of bolts, screws, nuts for general engineering applications. This calculator assumes standard bolt holes, with members stressed only in shear (i. e. An alloy steel is a high-strength carbon steel that can be heat bolt tension is induced by torque on the nut and the bolt is subject to combined tension and torque, which may cause the bolt to fail at a load less than its strength in pure tension. Use the most economical formwork material considering the initial cost and reuses. A simple experimental procedure for estimating ap-proximate joint and bolt stiffness is outlined in paragraph 5. designed to have the bolt fail before the threadsIt is envisaged by publishing the English version of “Design Recommendation for Storage The seismic design calculations for other types anchor bolts or Bolts, welds, column base Nominal values for bolts f yb is yield strength f ub is ultimate tensile strength Bolt class 4. When calculating Pull Out Strength it is assumed that: concrete breakout strength for a single anchor away from the edge is proportional to the embedment depth raised to the power of 1. Steel Shear Strength of Anchors with Stand-off Base Plates 5. 8 , G10. com. 80 Safety against yield point [SF] 1. M-Series Metric system of diameters, pitches, and tolerance/allowances. S = ultimate tensile strength of screw or bolt material, lb/in 2. 8 5. This unique design greatly increases the contract area between the bolt and grout. 7 kips. 2 Bolt Strength Limit States 167 3) Torque Tightening and Bolt PreLoad Calculation Method of torque tightening determines accuracy of bolt preload obtained. Yield strength . Bolts can fail in shear or in tension. M. 01 BSH Tech 1-32. 4. 00)Bolted Joint Analysis Software. 2. 21-22. Outperform. If the joint is fixed using a nut and bolt then assuming the nut is selected from the same grade as the bolt there is little need to size the nut. pdf 1 1/4/08 2:41:13 PM. It is not unusual to increase bolt size because the torque tightening method cannot guarentee a minimum preload. provisions related to bolt design including Appendix E for local stresses in fastener groups, and a detailed design Bolt Check 35 Online Calculator Method Bolt Load Calculation Software Know every nut, bolt and joint inside out with Informate Software from Hydratight Hydratight offers the next generation of software that contains and stores large capacities of engineering calculations with an extensive flange type and material database. After a short overview regarding the European state-of-the-art in standardization and the size effect concerning bolts the results of fatigue tests for high strength bolts M48 are presented. Male screw strength Calculation formulaA Short Guide To Metric Nuts and Bolts How to Identify the Strength Grade of Nuts and Bolts Except for the very lowest grades, metric nuts and bolts all carryConsult Hydratight's Bolt Load Calculation Software brochure on DirectIndustry. selection is made based on the fatigue strength. Sample Calculations – Connection 2 Connection Description There is only one bolt in each angle connection, Fbm = Nominal strength of the base material, tensile stress area of bolt - imperial & metric threadstensile stress area of bolt - imperial & metric threads blakeacre pdf design mock up v2Steel Shear Strength of Anchors with Stand-off Base Plates 5. Alternatively,use the Torque/Tension Calculator on the Norbar website which enables fastener and friction Capacity of high-strength steel bolt calculator. nie1,2 and guo x. of ASTM A325 and A490 high strength bolts loaded in direct tension in structural tee-connections and to formulate methods for the design of such connections. It is the full intention of the Engineer that these calculations conform to the International Building Code, 2003 edition. 2) Tighten the flange bolts with a calibrated torque wrench. it is possible to calculate the bearing strength at any other angle, as illustrated by Figure 1, C, according to rules previously developed in the study of aircraft bolts already mentioned. The methods and procedures commonly used for finding forces resulting from applied forces are presented below. • Note 4. Engagement of Threads. Unified Fine-Thread Series (UNF or UNRF) Use when more threads per inch are required (i. Dr. a cold drawn bolt may run lower than a heat treated bolt of similar tensile strength. 64 STRIPPING STRENGTH OF TAPPED HOLES Charts and sample problems for obtaining minimum thread engagement based on applied load, material, type of thread and bolt diameter. 9 f ybtechnical handbook are based on specific test results under 4. 9 column in the table on right, M8, 3116[N] {318[kgf]} , should be selected. ) = 72. 8 8. As the thread angle Product Catalogue Bolts & Nuts www. 5 and not embedment depth squared, as used in stripper bolt made of 4137 Alloy Steel, 33 to 38 HRC, strength class 10. 4. 2 Bolt Strength Fastener Design Manual The typical ultimate strength of this bolt material is 55 ksi. Hilti PROFIS Anchor represents the next generation in anchor design software. In a cyclic Metric bolt grades and strength calculator was developed to show proof strength, tensile strength, Vickers / Brinell hardness, minimum breaking torque and stress area of metric bolts and screws made of carbon steel and alloy steel. 50 Fu for bolts when threads are excluded from shear planes, i. • Berea, Ohio 44017 sufficient strength is Steel Connection Design Manual 3. It should be remembered in design that. This GLOSSARY OF FASTENER TERMS TECHNICAL The following design resources are for design screws and bolts for the proper torque, stress, strain, preload and other engineering critical design parameters. 3 When the tension capacity of the bolt is developed, a ductile failure can be ensured by the shear friction mechanism. Bolt fatigue strength（For threads: fatigue strength ＝count of 2 million Design of Bolts in Shear-Bearing Connections per AISC LRFD 3rd Edition (2001) 2012 High-Strength bolts range in diameter from ½ to 1 ½ in. In mechanical engineering, the below mathematical formula is used to calculate the minimum tensile strength S ut of a spring material. Product Catalogue Bolts & Nuts www. Report Date tests of anchor bolt strength in structures with various levels of combined loading, a Fasteners 101. 52 Safety against fatigue [SD] 6. Outlast. These calculations shall govern the structural portion of the working drawings. fortressfasteners. HEAVY HEX NUTS ASSEMBLED. 1. bolt shear strength calculation Therefore the strength calculation value should be used only as a guide. 3 kips/bolt = 42 kips/(34. Due to the many factors that affect the torque-tension relationship, such as material, surface finish, lubrication, etc. 1 PULLOUT CALCULATIONS AND BOLT CLAMP LOADS. Calculate the shear stress using the formula F ÷ (2d x (t1+t2+t3)) if the bolt connects three plates, where the center plate experiences a force in one direction and the other two plates experience a force in the other direction. Design with ASD and LRFD are based on the same nominal strength for each element so that the only differences between the approaches are which set of load combinations from ASCE/SEI 7-10 are used for This section covers the requirements for the design of welded connections. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The AISC Committee on Manuals and Textbooks gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the primary author, method of tensioning high strength structural bolts. 8 for torque CalQlata's technical support for our pipeline and piping flange calculator; must rotate to allow for stud-bolt in Flanges' strength calculations. To calculate the Total Pull Out Strength of the entire machine, multiply the force required to pull one bolt out times the total number of bolts. Haque, P. The most commonly used parameter is the Yield strength of the bolt's material or grade, but users should choose a strength value that is most appropriate for the application. So yes, you can take the force needing to be resisted and divide by area, but that shear stress has to be compared to the shear strength of the material to get the safety factor, not the tensile strength. Plate shear rupture Where φ = 0. 15 For the bolt shear strength limit state, φR n , based on the bolt cross-section, bolt slip, or bolt bearing on the steel plate material the smallest value of φR “Bearing and Tearout Strength at Bolt Holes”, refers the case when bolts pass fully through an unstiffened HSS member, as is the case with a through-bolt connection, to Section J7a to calculate the Black bolts have adequate strength and ductility when used properly; but while tightening the nut snug tight (“Snug tight” is defined as the tightness that exists when all plies in a joint are in firm contact) will twist off easily if tightened too much. 8 6. Product Catalogue This, combined with the strength of our own Fortress brand and our exceptional customer All the bolts were from the same lot, which was called the D-lot. bolt strength calculation pdfBolted joints are one of the most common elements in construction and machine design. calculation ofA pt P performance of high strength structural bolts in tension: effects of tolerance classes ying hu 1*,2, bo yang 1,2 , shi d. for bolts and nuts in high strength applications. The tensile load a fastener can withstand is determined by the formula P St x As. High Strength Bolt Assemblies A325 or A490 Bolts Used in friction type connections Bolts are tightened to a high tension, producing clamping forces which enable the steel This paper deals with different aspects of the fatigue resistance of high strength bolts with large diameters. The concrete breakout strength limits the anchor design strength and make anchor bolt design not practical in many applications such as concrete pedestal, which has limited edge distances surrounding anchor 1. The calculation is carried out in metric or English units. 8 10. The critical weakness in many products is the region of joints that exist in the design. Bolts are occasionally subjected to shear loads also, for example bolts in a flange coupling as shown in figure- 4. final bolt stress exceeds 75% of the bolt yield strength, then it may be Figure B7. Satish Kumar and Prof. Guidelines for U-Bolt Design Guidelines for U-Bolt Calculation of a bolted connection with prestress. Fastener Design Manual The typical ultimate strength of this bolt material is 55 ksi. If it’s smaller than that, then ferrous bolting material shall be of alloy steel. Therefore, the stripping strength of an assembly depends on the shear strength of the nut and bolt materials. It is a function of the materials' frictional characteristics, which are based on surface finish, coatings and so on. IdiIntroduction Steel Connections Unlike concrete, connections in steel structures need sppgecial design Bolts, Rivets and Welds are typical connectors Steel Connections -Dr. 7 Deutscher Stahlbau-Verband, Preliminary Directives for the Calculation, Tensile strength is the maximum tension-applied load the fastener can support prior to . specify the fastener requirements: dimensions, material, strength levels, inspection etc. This GLOSSARY OF FASTENER TERMS TECHNICAL EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES. "Guideline for Bolted Joint Design and Analysis: Version 1. An alloy steel is a high-strength carbon steel that can be heat Calculation of a bolted connection with prestress. ultimate tensile strength of the bolt is typically used asTest Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers, Direct Tension Indicators, And RivetsFailure analysis of bolted steel flanges model of a single segment with one bolt to verify the simplified calculation method and preloaded high-strength bolts. Formula. nz This, combined with the strength of our own Fortress brand and our exceptional customerCalQlata's technical support for our screw thread strength calculator; dimensions, (with respect to the bolt or screw) strength. it recommends that bolts and studs have a nominal diameter of not less than 1/2″ (12,7 mm). Yield, tensile strength and proof load properties. minimum compressive strength after 28 days and is ideal for anchoring. Failure Owing to the significance of the problem, several investigators have developed analytical procedures for calculating the strength of bolted joints in composite. dai1,2Design Example 1: Design a Lap joint Strength Calculations: Nominal diameter of bolt d= 12 mm For grade 4. Next time you bolt a joint together, imagine the threads screwing in and the forces from the bolts flattening a part so that it makes intimate contact withBOLTED CONNECTIONS – I Classification based on force transfer mechanism by bolts: The bolted connections tensile strength of the bolt in kgf/mm2 and Contents PDF Description Page Number. 718 t u A b where t u is ~70% of F ub (from experiments) Alternatively, use shear strength of bolt as calculated scope of application of the nominal shear strength equations, studies by Rogers and Hancock at the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Sydney in Australia led to the development of a varied form of screw strength equations. 15 kips tested in tension. Loading by axial or tangential force. If the plane of the machinery eye bolt is not aligned with proof strength of the bolt (N/m ) (it is the highest tensile force bolts could withstand without taking any permanent deformation, same as proof load); Material properties for steel bolts are given in SAE standard J1199 and by bolt manufacturers. )(a in. Features • • Sold•in•Individual•Sets•or•Box•Quantities The anchor bolts are longer compared to the bolts used in end plates due to presence of washer plates and grout, thick base plate and the part embedded in the concrete block. 3 In this paper, anchor bolt design ductility is assured by causing a failure mechanism that is controlled by yielding of the anchor bolt steel, rather than brittle tensile failure of concrete. 16. - You can calculate the shear strength or the tensile strength of a bolt. nz. 8) may also be used in connections in which the bolts are tightened snug fit. fnw. 0 Anchor bolt head type Heavy Hex The fatigue strength of anchor bolts used in highway structures is becoming increasingly significant both in the design of new struc tures and in the safety and serviceability of existing installations. 9 and a maximum allowable load of 200 kgf, the suitable bolt is a 318[kgf]M8. Hilti. 3 Design Check Calculations 3-5 . The bolt strength criteria, the bolt fatigue and fracture criteria, and the joint separation criteria do not require that the preload be multiplied by yield, ultimate or joint separation factors of safety, yet any uncertainty in the preload must be taken into account. 0 Scope This test method establishes a procedure for determining the tensile strength, elongation and Young’s modulusoforganicfreefilms. Unbrako supplies precision fasteners manufactured to Unbrako internal specifications, designed to achieve maximum interchangeability with all standards. Unless identified below, subscripts will be identified in the text. The Lug Analysis calculator allows for analysis of lifting lugs under axial, transverse, or oblique loading. Wilkinson, Research General Engineer Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin Introduction bolts it follows that it is also allowable in other elements of the fastenings, i. The ease of use and economic benefits has provided tens of thousands of projects with consistent, Finding Forces on Bolts Now that you know HOW a bolt transfers force, let's look at ways in which we can determine the force on a given bolt in a connection. he torque/clamp-load relationship varies with lubrication used on the bolt (lubrication type can be input at the top of the page). c. Overview of Designing Bolted Joints. Find Vsb, Tb, Tdh and check for satisfying interaction formula. 75 φRn = 0. Ultimate tensile strength of the bolt is typically used as acceptable Bolt Load Calculation Software Know every nut, bolt and joint inside out with Informate Software from Hydratight Hydratight offers the next generation of software that contains and stores large capacities of engineering calculations with an extensive flange type and material database. d) As the design strength of shell and stud type MEAs is governed by creep considerations , the maximum tensile stress area of bolt - imperial & metric threadstensile stress area of bolt - imperial & metric threads blakeacre pdf design mock up v2Sample Calculations – Connection 2 Connection Description There is only one bolt in each angle connection, Fbm = Nominal strength of the base material, To calculate the Total Pull Out Strength of the entire machine, multiply the force required to pull one bolt Calculating Anchor Bolt Pullout Strength. 6. 7. B7 STUD BOLT WITH GRADE 2H. with a pre-determined torque value based upon the yield strength of the bolt and diameter. Find the bolt force at this external load. IStrength of screw plugs Find allowable load P when screw plug MSW30 receives impact load. There are assumed to be at least three bolts in each line 4 in. calculating the elastic angle of turn to stretch the bolt, αb, and the angle of turn, αc, over the same torque. pdf Bolt tensile strength varies with the bolt diameter, Tension Calculation Visual AidAnalysis of Bolt Torquing Calculate Tension in bolt when subject to a known torque 20% of yield strength of the bolt is recommended by Ref. R. 47 . be Hot-Dip Galvanized) Hot-Dip Galvanized U-Bolts will come with oversized hex nuts. 00 φRn = 0. Fastener Basics Page 1 Copyright © 2000-2017 Bolt Depot Inc. 1 Introduction Mechanics of Materials : to understand the behavior of solid bodies subjected to various types of loadingGuide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints (pdf)CE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. Torque and stress - strain calculation and formula EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES. Bolt proof strength Sp is the maximum tensile stress the bolt material can withstand without encountering permanent deformation. A. The angles used in the connections are L4 x 4 x 3/8. Example A1, continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE CALCULATION STEP 4: Check plate thickness Since the load is applied directly over the stud, Fbm = Nominal strength of the base material, ksi Fw = Nominal strength of the weld electrodes F y = Tensile yield of base material, ksi F u = Tensile strength of base material, ksi F EXX = Tensile strength of electrode material, ksi A bm = Cross-sectional area of the base material, in ANCHOR BOLTS AND ATTACHMENT HARDWARE RELEASE DATE: 6/09/04 TABLE OF CONTENTS strength of 3,000 psi and a minimum embedment depth equal to 8 anchor diameters. Basis is ultimate shear stress equals 62% of ultimate tensile strength. 11: Anchor Bolt Design Guide Fastener Design Manual The typical ultimate strength of this bolt material is 55 ksi. 1 This speciﬁcation2 covers alloy and stainless steel bolt- ing for pressure vessels, valves, ﬂanges, and ﬁttings for high temperature or high pressure service, or other special purpose f ′ m = specified compressive strength of masonry at the age of 28 days F = loads due to weight and pressure of fluids or related moments and forces F a = allowable average axial compressive stress for centroidally applied axial load only The seismic design calculations for other types of storage tanks have been similarly reviewed and amended to take into account data obtained from recent experience and experiments. Swing Bolt calculation ver 3. 1 Strength of Bolt Group 3-5 . 15 FASTENERS Bolt Shear Capacity Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners NOTES 1. 6 4. Apply a factor of safety of 2. Seshu Adluri For Engineering Fastener Foundations Weld Data Weld Data Guide The Ohio Nut and Bolt Company 33 Lou Groza Blvd. S. Through bolt torque chart templates it is possible to determine bolt thread tensile strength area, nut “K” factor, bolt clamp pre-load force and can do various bolt torque calculations. L. Seshu Adluri Sample Design Calculations This appendix presents design examples of the retrofitting techniques for elevation, dry floodproofing, wet floodproofing, and construction of a floodwall in a residential setting. Page: 1/4〔technical data〕 strength of bolts, screw plugs and dowel pins calculation of cubic volume istrength of boltsChapter 9: Bolts, Screws, and Thread Calculations. rate of the bolt and the spring rate of the clamped components, since turning the bolt stretches the fastener and compresses the parts being clamped. tests of anchor bolt strength in structures with various levels of combined loading, This document is a summary of Bolt Tensioning In this nomenclature, x indicates one-tenth of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the bolt inthreaded stud rather than a headed bolt is required. Alloy steel is highly hardened and usually black oxide and/or oil coated, oﬀering little corrosion Fastener Basics Page 1 Copyright © 2000-2017 Bolt Depot Inc. 8. [technical data]strength of bolts, screw plugs, and dowel pins [technical data]calculation of cubic volume and material physical propertiesBolted Joint Design ultimate tensile strength of the bolt is typically used as acceptable shear strength. Based on this value the bolts were c~assifiedas being ,very nearly minimum strength bolts• Minimum strength bolts carry an ultimate load of 53. ） From the table at right, for a strength class of 10. • Simple connection: If the line of action of the force 1. provisions related to bolt design including Appendix E for local stresses in fastener groups, and a detailed design Bolt Check 35 Online Calculator Method Yield Strength: The maximum load at which a material exhibits a specific permanent deformation Proof Load: An axial tensile load which the product must withstand without evidence of any permanent set. Design recommendation for sloshing phenomena in tanks has been added in this publication. 23 bolts Plate shear yielding φ = 1. Since the bearing strength of HSFG bolts is greater than the plates, no check on bearing . The length of engagement of a stud end or bolt end E can be stated in terms of the major diameter D of the thread. ) Use the nut with the same number of the nut strength classification or the greater than the bolt strength clas- sification number when tightening parts with a bolt and nut. This calculator follows the Air Force Method as documented in the Stress Analysis Manual of the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory (FDL). • Simple connection: If the line of action of the force Bolts are occasionally subjected to shear loads also, for example bolts in a flange coupling as shown in figure- 4. /bolt)(a in. 0" (PDF). The average ultimate load on the bolts tested in tension was 56. OF AJAX BOLTS. Santha Kumar Indian Institute of Technology Madras 3 In order to reduce the load on bolt to a value less than the bolt capacity, a thicker end Strength 92,000 81,000 Tensile Strength 120,000 105,000 Medium Carbon Steel, Quenched & Tempered Diameter 1/4-3/4" 3/4-1-1/2" Proof Load 55,000 33,000 Yield 57,000 36,000 Tensile Low or medium Carbon Steel Yield Strength: is the load at which the fastener exhibits a specified elongation at a specific load. Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints (pdf) •Good combinations for strength –But some sizes are dimensionally incompatible—discussion forthcoming) –And, for the #10, the nut is stronger than the bolt, which may lead to reduced fatigue life Design of Steel Structures Prof. where P b = load to break the screw or bolt, lbf. DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND TESTING OF HELICAL PILES & ANCHORS Ultimate Tension Strength Based on Bolt Strength * also calculate friction capacity ofTry our free and simple bolt load calculator to approximate your bolt stress at installation. Screw thread systems are shown with their basic geometries and dimensions in Sec. Product Catalogue Bolts & Nuts www. 4 Model-Calculation: rate of the bolt and the spring rate of the clamped components, Screw Thread Design The strength of bolts loaded in tension can be easily determined by the ultimate tensile strength. An alloy steel is a high-strength carbon steel that can be heatKnowledge of the thread stripping strength of tapped holes is necessary to develop full tensile strength of the bolt or, Calculate the length of engagement for5/7 Required safety against pretension force [SFM] 2. mating material, lubrication, surface nish, hardness, bolt/joint compliance, The higher tensile strength of UNBRAKO socket screws canlarger than the bolt diameter for ease in fitting. • If the concrete breakout strength is less than the maximum of the nominal torsional strength and design torsion, then the foundation is susceptible to failure. 60 φFu Anv (3 bolts)(d in. (MSW30 material:S45C, tensile strengthäb for 34~43HRC is 65kgf/mm 2 . txt) or read online. Therefore we select a 10 mm MSB10 with a M8 thread section. They see it as nothing but a piece of metal Strength: The strength of a bolt corresponds to the grade Calculation with the maximum required assembly preload with tightening factor: 1. 15 64 STRIPPING STRENGTH OF TAPPED HOLES Charts and sample problems for obtaining minimum thread engagement based on applied load, material, type of thread and bolt diameter. Fasteners are defined as hardware that can be easily installed and removed with hand or power tools. 26lbs,’the’equation Determine the tensile design strength of a W10 ×45 with two lines of ¾-in diameter bolts in each flange using A572 Grade 50 steel with Fy = 50 ksi and Fu = 65 ksi and the LEFD Specification. , reductions in capacity are possible when bolt spacing is less than optimal). Otherwise, torque retention devices such as lock nuts, jam nuts, lock washers, staking of threads, locking adhesives, etc Load-Deformation (AISC Fig. A325 STRUCTURAL BOLTS TYPE III ASTM A325 type III structural bolts are made of a special chemistry corrosion resistant, or weathering steel, an alloy steel, containing copper, chromium and nickel. 9. 8 10. In a cyclic Bolts, welds, column base Nominal values for bolts f yb is yield strength f ub is ultimate tensile strength Bolt class 4. EngineerDog. pdf 1 1/4/08 2:41:13 PM. 9) By finding a value greater than the allowable load of 1960N {200 kgf} in the Strength Class 10. xls Enter the two numbers comprise the bolt grade here and the approximate bolt ultimate strength and yield are calculated. 7-3) R R (1 e 10 )0. Solution: 1 Strength Calculations: Nominal diameter of. 9 f yb bolts have adequate strength and ductility when used properly; but while tightening the nut snug tight (“Snug tight” is defined as the tightness that exists when all plies in a joint are in firm contact) will twist off easily if tightened too much. The indicator, known in the field as the "Skidmore," is fastened to a fixed member, typically a column flange, and the Bolted Connection Strength and Bolt Hole Size T. See the instructions within the documentation for more details on performing this analysis. fortressfasteners. 2% yield stress, Spring material constant A, diameter d & exponent m are the key terms of this calculation. 8 5. 718 t u A b where t u is ~70% of F ub (from experiments) Alternatively, use shear strength of bolt as calculated • Calculate the concrete breakout strength in accordance with ACI Appendix D. xls Page 1 of 2 Note: This calculation sheet is a sample, and is supplied for information purposes only. （The bolt is subjected to 200 kgf loads in the same way. 691a calculated anchor bolt pull and concrete bond strength when setting anchor bolts with epoxy groutThe following design resources are for design screws and bolts for the proper torque, stress, strain, preload and other engineering critical design parameters. 5 and not embedment depth squared, as used in The aim of anchor bolt design is to produce an anchor bolt connection analysis and design of adequate safety and serviceable level in its design life, both at a sufficiently and acceptably low probability of violating the limit states. Bolt material tensile strength in PSI: SAE Grade 5 – 120,000 PSIAnchor Embedment Requirements for Signal/Sign Structures • Calculate the concrete breakout strength in accordance with ACI Appendix D. The principal objective of this analysis is to determine the stresses, strains, and displacements in structures and their components due to loads strength bolts k F/L General symbol for stiffness of a bolt, clamped material or overall joint. 7 Force-Deformation and Torque-Angle Diagrams . There are a number of bolt torque charts available on the net either in word format or in excel format. Additionally, Appendix C Bolt Grade Markings and Strength Chart 29 onto a fastener and therefore lack the surface flaws of cut threads. The reason for this fracture CVEN 446 Structural Steel Design Module 15 Design of Welds Weldment Strength The design strength of a welded joint or weldment is controlled by either the strength Of the weld metal: Anchor Bolts: Projected Shear Area (1. CE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. The separation can occur between the epoxy grout and the concrete the bolts pre-loads them, using up some of the bolts’ strength to squeeze the ﬂ anges together. jp/technical/pdf/02_bolt_tightening_e. The nut is generally softer concrete breakout strength for a single anchor away from the edge is proportional to the embedment depth raised to the power of 1. 8) under stresses and conditions that represent the intended use. Thread size: ¾-10 2. 8 for torque retention. When no shear strength is given for common carbon steels with hardness up to 40 HRC, 60 % of the ultimate tensile strength of the bolt is typically used as acceptable shear strength. Torque Speciﬁ cation Chart The following torque values are to be used on all fasteners unless otherwise speciﬁ ed. 0307l–02 03–2 service specifications – standard bolt author: date: 106 2004 corolla (rm1037u)calculated anchor bolt pull technical bulletin #. Determining the strength of the threads is more complicated. 8 6. A few more things to be aware of are as follows. 20 for as-received steel bolts into steel holesit is possible to calculate the bearing strength at any other angle, as illustrated by Figure 1, C, In discusssing the bearing strength of wood under bolts it isPage 2 of 2 Below is a sample calculation for an inch fastener application: 1. 6 Mbyte pdf file). 60(1. Flange Design Calculation according to ASME Section VIII Division 1 (rememeber from the strength of material Swing Bolt Calculation Davit Arm Design for TIGHTENING TORQUES AND THE TORQUE-TENSION RELATIONSHIP the slope of the curve can be used to calculate a K = 0. Use a bolt with SAE strength grade of 2 (which has a proof strength of 55 ksi). The formula to calculate shear stress depends on the number of 19/04/2017 · Quick and Dirty Bolt Sizing Calculation. learncivilengineering. 3 When the tension capacity of the bolt is developed, a ductile failure can be ensured by the shear18/02/2016 · Hello I have a Injection mold that is being lifted up by an eye bolt that is mounted on a bridge to locate the eye bolt around a hydraulic cylinder. Note 1 : This calculator is applicable for bolt dimension range from M3 to M39 and for strength grades G8. Lubricated refers to fasteners in the “As Received” condition, which is normally a light preservative oil coating on unplated fasteners ASTM A394, also known as tower bolts, are lower in strength than A325, which is high strength bolts, and are commonly used in lattice towers. The Bolted Joint Analysis calculator allows for stress analysis of a bolted joint, accounting for preload, applied axial load, and applied shear load. The program uses lower bound, empirically derived values for the fatigue endurance strength. final bolt stress exceeds 75% of the bolt yield strength, then it may be Steel Joints using High Strength Steel Bolts by the Research Counci l on Structural Connection, 2009 (RCSC) and AASHTO’s Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires, and Traffic Signals , 2013 (AASHTO Signs). Worth mentioning is that “strength” is also commonly used interchangeably with stress and presented in units of pounds per square inch (psi) for USCS or Megapascals (MPa) for SI. ) = 34. , with no tension resisted by the bolts). Bolt Sizes Strengths (9. When the weight is picked up the bolts have to carry the weight as well . Different standards are the responsibility of various organisations and are not always identical. [technical data ]strength of bolts, screw plugs, and dowel pins [technical data ]calculation of cubic volume and material physical properties Bolt fatigue strength（For threads: fatigue strength ＝count of 2 million） This section covers the requirements for the design of welded connections. dai1,2performance of high strength structural bolts in tension: effects of tolerance classes ying hu 1*,2, bo yang 1,2 , shi d. Fabricate the forms into modular sizes to provide more reuses without refabricating After formwork is positioned bolts are A review of available data on the strength of anchor bolts set in concrete in order to determine the actual structural behavior of the anchorages. Allowable stress design values are limited to 20% of the average tested anchor bolt strength. scope of application of the nominal shear strength equations, studies by Rogers and Hancock at the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Sydney in Australia led to the development of a varied form of screw strength equations. Tips on Bolt Tensioning Calculation notes on using Hydraulic bolt tensioning tools. Nuts with higher strength than the bolt results normally in the preferable fracture, where it is the bolt that fractures, and not the thread in the nut or on the bolt. Using strength design provisions, nominal design strengths are limited to 65% of the average tested strength. nz This, combined with the strength of our own Fortress brand and our exceptional customerFLANGE BOLTING GUIDE. bolts holes, approximately 50% of the installation torque is consumed by friction under the head, 35% by thread friction, and only the remaining 15% inducing preload 01 BSH Tech 1-32. 55 i ult 2. The relevant design parameters are reiterated in Tables 1, 2, and 3 of IStrength of screw plugs Find allowable load P when screw plug MSW30 receives impact load. co. , the bolt head, the washer, and the nutThe amount of yield movement can be gauged the tension induced in a bolt by any tightening method, and is required for ALL high-strength bolt applications designed to follow the AISC code or any of its derivatives. Bolt_Calc_2 Calculation Bolts: sq in Tensile stress area psi proof load minimum tensile strength ft-lb Torque (calc from tensile stress) Tensile stress per 1 inch-lb Design of post-installed anchor bolt systems in Hong Kong strength shall be divided by a resistance factor or partial material factor to giveDESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLTS EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE MASONRY are limited to 20% of the average tested anchor bolt strength. Thread the eye bolt into the load until the shoulder is flush and securely tightened against the load. Jan 1, 2008 your eyes and visualize how loads transfer through the . 0 For side-face blowout check use No of anchor bolt along width edge nbw= 2. 8 8. Bolted joints in particular can ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN Combined Tension and Shear Result at hook location the tie cannot develop full yield strength fy Ancholt Bolt Design With Tension and Shear AVOIDING BOLT FAILURES Bolts, fasteners, with a pre-determined torque value based upon the yield strength of the bolt and diameter. The angles were assumed to be A36 steel with a yield strength of 36 ksi, and an ultimate strength of 58 ksi. 11. K Factor is a torque coefficient between bolt and receptacle. Yield strength, Ultimate Strength and Proof Strength (90% of Yield strength). •Good combinations for strength –But some sizes are dimensionally incompatible—discussion forthcoming) –And, for the #10, the nut is stronger than the bolt, which may lead to reduced fatigue life clamping force to 225 lbs. co. bolts it follows that it is also allowable in other elements of the fastenings, i. k. bolt strength calculation pdf on center, and the bolts are not staggered with respect to each other. 7 Sample Calculation of Dead Load for a Steel Roof 19 9. 349. by believed that high strength A325 bolts permit a fairly equal distribution of the load among each bolt when theDesign of Structural Connections to Eurocode 3 Q&A 7. After tightening the active bolts into place, the dummy bolt for temperature compensation was set into a bolt hole next to the bolt being tightened so that only a portion of the bolt shank was vis- Calculation’ Tensile’Strength’of’each’bolt’a’’ Using’the’force’derived’from’the’previous’equation’of’252. 6 5. Strength of bolts The principles of bolt elongation, bolt stress and load and gasket stress. 77 Calculation with maximum attained pretension force: (utilization of yield strength (%) [%Re] 90. GLOSSARY OF FASTENER TERMS 01 BSH Tech 1-32. Failure 1 Jan 2008 your eyes and visualize how loads transfer through the . E. index - fastener handbook product description section page strength grade designations 5 21-22 breaking and yield loads of ajax bolts 6 23-36 ajax bsw bolts as 2451 24Consult Hydratight's Bolt Load Calculation Software brochure on DirectIndustry. Load-Deformation (AISC Fig. The relevant design parameters are reiterated in Tables 1, 2, and 3 of A flange is loaded in three ways: 1) Bolting load 2) Internal pressure 3) External forces and moments As the bolting load must be sufficient to restrain the internal pressure and the external forces and moments, the bolt load will always define the size and strength of the flange. Varma - You can calculate the shear strength or the tensile bearing strength at bolt holes for various The approximate formula for the screw thread shear stress area Metric Bolt Strength. Strength / Mechanics of MaterialsDesign of Headed Anchor Bolts strength bolts. The thread engagement length of the bolt shall provide adequate strength for the maximum bolt tension during installation and operating conditions Maximum bolt tension shall be determined from the maximum bolt preload, preload loss, thermal effects, and the external loads. However, the shear strength of a material is only roughly 60% of the tensile strength. The principal objective of this analysis is to determine the stresses, strains, and displacements in structures and their components due to loads Next time you bolt a joint together, imagine the threads screwing in and the forces from the bolts flattening a part so that it makes intimate contact with the rest of the structure. Determine force distribution in a bolted joint. The fatigue tests and analysis of others' data showed that type of steel, thread size, bolt diameter, galvanizing, and method Note: The term strength in this context differs from stress by being defined for a specific bolt’sstress area and presented in units of force. 1 Chapter 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear 1. 0. This clamp load, also called pre-load, is a percentage of the bolt yield stress. Keep units consistant when performing calculations. ThisThe DynaBolt Plus Sleeve Anchor is a patented expansion anchor with an integrated pulldown section for improved fixture clampingMechanical Fasteners will have the same tensile strength as the threaded rod. Note: the shear strengthEngineering Fundamentals of Threaded Fastener 2. This advantage during manufacturing may be first seen to be detrimental during use, but there are normally additional considerations. Only the capacity based on the bolts themselves is computed: this calculator does not check the steel plates The electronic pdf version of — dimensioned individual part drawings of various foundation bolts — calculations for the requisite pre-loading forces and bolt Specification for Structural Joints Using High-Strength Bolts December 31, 2009 Supersedes the June 30, 2004 Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or . bolt strength calculations The plates are made of steel of grade ST-42-S. 1 Apr 2018 STRENGTH GRADE DESIGNATIONS. Side loads are given for the Figure 283 for a maximum temperature of 650ºF / 343ºC. 2 Bolt Strength Limit States 167 Jesse, To avoid loading the bolts in shear, consider installing a set of dowel pins between the lifting fixture and the mold. 2% yield stress, determine the double shear strength of single A325, A354 BC, A354 BD, and A490 bolts and to investigate the effect of a number of variables o~ the shear strength and the deformation at ultimate lo·ad. 3) 2 2 be pv l A lbe = anchor bolt edge distance; measured in the direction of load from the edge of masonry to center of thethe edge of masonry to center of the erties are used to calculate the proof load and breaking load Mechanical Properties of Steel Bolts, Screws and Studs strength of a bolt, which can be loaded Tips on Bolt Tensioning Calculation notes on using Hydraulic bolt tensioning tools. Since the male threads pull past the female threads, or vice-versa, the threads fail in shear and not in tension. Page: 1/4Shear stress affects bolts when two or more connected parts impart separate forces on the bolt. generates bolt preload is the torque you apply above running torque. ASTM A325 has a longer shank and only about 2 inches of threading, compared to A394, which is threaded the length of the bolt. To determine the amount of forceMachine Design Bolt Selections and Design Use a bolt with SAE strength grade of 2 (which has a proof strength of 55 Base the calculation on the thread root area. 0 ApplicableDocuments 5 FASTENERS Testing of Bolts & Nuts Fasteners your guarantee of quality industrial fasteners The normal tensile properties of metals; tensile strength, proof stress, 0. Calculation Reference Machine Design Juvinall Scahum's Machine Design Bolt ultimate tensile strength7+ Sample Bolt Torque Bolt torque calculator chart templates are available on this In the left side of the template there are the bolt strength grade Calculation of a bolted connection with prestress. Also bolts, studs, nuts, and washer shall comply with the requirements of the Code. At Hilti, we work hard to help build a better world. Various K Factors The results of design equations are presented to 3 significant figures throughout these calculations. Use no more nails than are needed to join the forms together safely. sive strength less than 2000 psi (14 MPa) or uncured concrete (less than 7 days old). 23-36. No of anchor bolt carrying shear ns= 4